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APA Style Guide

This guide is intended to help students cite their sources according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2010).

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of citing, it is very important to understand the following terms.  


Article - This is a document written in a periodical (magazine, newspaper, or journal).

Book - These include print books such as reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and also e-books (electronic books). Please note that there is a significant difference in how you cite an e-book versus a print book.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) -  Refers to a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a journal article, book, book chapter, or reference entry. The DOI number is used to help track and identify individual documents. It is similar to the function of IBSN for a book.

Electronic Source - Information obtained in electronic format (i.e. e-book, online journal, website).

Endnote - A note, as of explanation, emendation, or the like added at the end of an article or chapter.

Footnote - An explanatory or documenting note or comment at the end of a page referring to a specific part of the text on the page.

In-Text Citation - This is shortened version of the citations listed in your reference page.They are found in the body of a paper.

Journal - A periodical that is published by a trade, discipline or interest group that can be popular or scholarly in nature.

Magazine - Periodical containing miscellaneous pieces of information (as articles, stories, poems) usually through a subscription.

Media -This is information obtained through means such as television, radio, film, video, and photography.

Monograph - Refers to a scholarly piece of writing. It can be an essay or book length on a specific, often limited subject by a single writer.

Peer-Reviewed Journals - In order for journal publishers to ensure the articles they publish represent the best scholarship currently available, articles are sent out to other scholars in the same field to seek their opinion on the quality of the information considered for publication.

Primary Source - This is information collected firsthand from sources such as historical documents, literary texts, artistic works, experiments, surveys, and interviews.

Print Source - Physical copy of a journal or book.

Reference List - This a list of full citations of the sources used to research a paper. They are listed in alphabetical order.

Secondary Source - A second-hand account of something such as a quotation in a literature review.

Scholarly Articles - Refers to something that is published in a academic journal or on a scholarly website. These are articles written by experts in these fields.

(Source: University/College Library, Broward College - Florida Atlantic University)