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NURS 348 – Pathophysiology: Home

A guide for NURS 348 – Pathophysiology

Citations

APA style is required for course. 

You can find a print copy of the APA Style Manual, 6th Edition in the Reference section on the 5th floor or the Learning Resources Division.

For citation assistance accessible online, I recommend OWL at Purdue. They cover all formats and provide examples.

Even if you get your citation from a database, I encourage you to always check it against the print manual or an online guide such as OWL at Purdue.

Annotated Bibliography

If you have questions about how to approach an annotated bibliography, OWL at Purdue has a convenient guide to help you understand this step of the research process. 

Searching for Articles

Here are a few sources available for Nursing:

CINAHL
CINAHL, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, is the most comprehensive resource for nursing and allied health literature.

Science Full-Text Select
Science Full-Text Select has some coverage of nutrition and nursing-related journals.

PubMed Central
PubMed comprises more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from MEDLINE and life science journals. Citations may include links to full-text articles from PubMed Central or publisher web sites.

TRIP Database
Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.
 

If you cannot access an article you need for your research, contact your librarian.

Search Strategies

Keywords: Databases require that you search using keywords, rather than questions. You cannot search "What are the prevention strategies for early childhood obesity" the way you might in Google. The databases search for everything you enter, which means they are also searching for "what" "are" and "the," which could clutter your results, or narrow them too much.

Thus, you must select keywords to search: prevention, early childhood, obesity can be pulled out.

Synonyms: Since the databases will search for ONLY what you enter, often time you have to think of synonyms for your keywords. Early childhood obesity could also be refered to as pediatric obesity, or perhaps infant obesity. Sometimes it's easiest to do multiple searches using these different terms. Other times you might want to use Boolean search terms to use a single search.

And, Or, and Not (Boolean Search Terms):

  • AND: using AND means that you are searching for both term 1 and term 2, e.g. Early AND childhood AND obesity. The default in databases is to search as if there is AND between all of your keywords, so you do not always need to enter it (you can simply search early childhood obesity).
  • OR: using OR allows you to search for two similar terms simulaneaously. As mentioned with synonyms, there could be multiple terms you want to use to search for the same thing. OR allows you to do this, e.g. ("Early childhood" OR pediatric OR infant) AND obesity
  • NOT: NOT allows you to specify that you do not want results with a certain keyword. Perhaps you want to look at early childhood obesity, but you do not want to condier diabetes, and you are getting a lot of results that include it. You can add NOT diabetes to your search. Be very careful with NOT, as it will exclude results with ANY mention of diabetes, for example, and article saying diabetes was not considered, which is actually what you are looking for in this example. NOT should always be used judiciously and should only be added when necessary, not included in an initial search.

For a visual representation of Boolean search terms, see these venn diagrams.

Quotation Marks: Quotation marks allow you to search for an exact phrase. "Childhood Obesity" will search for occurances of the exact phrase, not articles that have childhood in one place and obesity in another sentence. This can be very useful, but do not assume that it is always required. Especially when there are synonyms for some of your keywords, or if you aren't entirely sure you search terms will get you the correct results, doing the broader search without quotations might be a safer place to start.

Wildcard: Most databases have a wildcard symbol, which allows you to search for all of the variable endings of a root word. For example, educat* will search for educate, education, educational, and educator. However, be careful, because sometimes unrelated words might share the same root. You might want to search for policy or policies, but polic* will also give you police.

Remember: These databases are not smart like Google. Goole will autocorrect and say "I think you meant this." These databases will searc for exactly what you type, which means sometimes you have to try a few different things. If you have trouble finding sources, contact a librarian for help.

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